Arkansas HVACR NewsMagazine November 2021

Published by Arkansas HVACR Association

News Magazine November 2021

Arkansas’ First and Only HVACRNewsMagazine

The Good Ole ’ Days Weren ’ t That Long Ago

DET, Duct & Envelope Testing

Tech Articles Tom Turner Air Flow, Part III

Dollar a Gallon Higher with no Top in Sight

Bryan Orr Commissioning a Residential Split Heat Pump

Moves into 4 th week Still time to sign Up

W1, W2, E

From Hero To You ’ re Fired

Who ’ d A Thunk It : Gas Prices Then and Now

pg 8 pg 13 pg 15 pg 16 pg 22 pg 27 pg 37 pg 47 pg 51 pg 54

From Hero to You ’ re Fired

Nana ’ s Chicken Spaghetti

Jeff Smith to Lead Instructor ’ s Council Instructor ’ s Council Mission Statement Insurance Risk Transfer, EMC--Nick Hall

Kirk’s Corner

Commissioning a Heat Pump

W1, W2, E

Air Flow Through the Distribution System Unique Arkansas : Nana ’ s Chicken Spaghetti


For Arkansans

Table of Contents

Chapter Meeting Schedule

PG 6

Feature Stories

PG 8

Who ’ d A Thunk It : Gas Prices Then and Now

Editorial & Opinion From Hero to You ’ re Fired

pg 13

State, national, chapter news Jeff Smith to Lead Instructor ’ s Council

PG 15

Instructor ’ s Council Mission Statement Insurance Risk Transfer : Easy Quote

pg 16

PG 22

Kirk ’ s Corner

PG 27

Education News Training Programs

PG 28

PG 32

ESCO Learning Network

PG 34 pg 0 PG 33 pg 36

Rebate Programs & Incentives

Tech News

PG 37

Commissioning a Heat Pump (Bryan Orr, HVAC School)

PG 47

W1, W2, E (Bryan Orr, HVAC School)

PG 51

Air Flow Through the Distribution System (Tom Turner — Air Evangelist)

Unique Arkansas Featuring Arkansas Culture

PG 54

Nana ’ s Chicken Spaghetti

Historic Leslie Downtown

chapter meetings

Central Chapter 4 th Tuesday 6:00 Meal : 6:30 Program Location: Larry ’ s Pizza

October 26 November 23 February 22 March 22 April 26

12911 Cantrell Road Little Rock, AR 72202 501-224-8804

September 7 October 5 November 2 December 7 January 4 February 1 March 1

Fort Smith Chapter 1 st Tuesday

5:30 Meal : 6:00 Program Location : Golden Corral 1801 South Waldon Road Fort Smith 479-484-1040

April 5 May 3

Hot Springs Chapter 2 nd Tuesday 6:00 Meal : 6:30 Program Location: Smokin’ in Style BBQ 2278 Albert Pike Hot Springs 501-767-9797

October 12 November 9 February 8

March 8 April 12

North Central Chapter 4 th Thursday 6:00 Meal : 6:30 Program

September 23 October 28 February 24 March 24 April 28

Location : Rotates North Ark & NAECI Harrison

chapter meetings

North East Chapter 3 rd Tuesday

October 19 November 16 February 15 March 15 April 19

6:00 Meal : 6:30 Program Location : Golden Corral 2405 East Highland Jonesboro 870/ 351-3212

North West Chapter 2 nd Thursday

October 14 November 11 February 10 March 10 April 14

6:00 Meal : 6:30 Program Location: Golden Corral 2605 Pleasant Crossing Drive Rogers 479/986-9201 South Central/ Camden 1 st Thursday 6:00 Meal : 6:30 Program Location: Rotates

October 7 November 4 February 3 March 3 April 7

Camden / El Dorado

South West / Texarkana 3 rd Thursday

October 21 November 18 February 17 March 17 April 21 Call for meeting Location

6:00 Meal : 6:30 Program Location: Rotates between restaurants. Call for a meeting location. 501/487-8655

News Magazine November 2021


remember saying. It is one of the big reasons that I was ready to sell when the offer came my way. Now, $1.02 is a distant memory as though it never existed. Sounds like old men sitting around spitt in’ and whit lin’ talking about “back in the day”. They also walked 5 miles to school up hills both ways carrying their biscuit in a pail. However, it was just a few months ago that gas could commonly be found for under $2.00. You don ’t have to be old to reminisce about that price and complain about the present day escalating cost of fueling a truck. The following chart shows Arkansas gas prices as of October 20. Data furnished by AAA.

Who’d a Thunk it

Sherwood, April 3, 2020 7:11 a.m.

The date was April 3, 2020 and the price was amazing. That is why I took the picture. Wish I could remember the station so I could show you their price for today. Fuel has always been a big cost of doing business in the HVACR industry. We put a lot of miles on our trucks. In about 1997, my little business in North Little Rock bought most of our fuel at the Road Runner on Broadway at I-30. I remember pumping gas and being so angry because their price had topped a dollar. It was about $1.02. “There is no way anyone can pay these prices and survive in the HVACR industry”, I

Th thing that makes it so hard for us today are out of control price increases with no sign of an end in sight; especially when some of our politicians promote the country ’s need to pay more so we ’ ll use less thus supporting the end of fossil fuels. I think about our industry; but, even more, working folks buying gas. Many, maybe even most, are paying an extra $15 a tank compared to a year

News Magazine November 2021


ago. Buying just a tank per week per vehicle, a single car family is out $64.50 per month. A two car family--- $129.00 and, as we said, there seems to be no end in sight. To maintain some sanity and not go into depression, let ’ s take a historical perspective — comparing the price of gas to today ’ s buying power based on the inflation index. In 1965ish I was driving my first car and feeling pretty important. Gas was less than $0.30 with price wars driving it down to $0.19. Oh for that day, but then wages were much less. According to the US Department of Labor, the minimum wage in 1955 was $1.00 with increases up to $1.25 in 1965. wage/history My first “ public ” job compared to farm labor, paid $1.00 an hour. So how much was gas compared to 2015 buying power? $2.49. The following chart was compiled from the Energy Office, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewal Energy. The chart stops at 2015 because that was where they stopped.

Comparing gas prices and today ’s minimum wage, presently at $11 and on its way to $15, there is an interesting picture. (I make this comparison for perspective when shocked about the price of a gallon of gas or the price of a burger.) Some of my numbers may be a bit mixed but serve the purpose of perspective.


Pump Price

2015 $s

Minimum Wage

1965 2015

0.30 2.49

1.76 2.49

1.25 7.25

Of course, we live in 2021 and things — they are changing. Gathering data and making our own chart, we find--

Recent Arkansas


Pump Price

2021 $s

Minimum Wage



$3.01 11.00

Even with soring inflation, the comparative price of 2015 gas should only be $2.88 yet we stand at $3.01. OK, this is an exercise in “ DUH ” . We know that gas is high and there is no end in sight. Discounting income taxes and only using gross income, a minimum wage earner in 1965 could purchase 4.166 gallons of gas. In 2021 a minimum wage earner can purchase 3.654 gallons of gas. That is about 12% less fuel in the tank on minimum wage. We all knew in April 2020 that gas could not stay at $1.47/gallon. We just had no idea that it would rise so much so fast. That is the kicker. We were enjoing crazy low gas prices in a


Pump Price

2015 $s w/ inflation index

1935 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015

0.19 0.21 0.29 0.30 0.53 1.13 1.15 2.30 2.49

2.54 2.12 1.98 1.76 1.81 2.10 1.62 2.66

2.49 august-31-2015-historical-gas-prices

News Magazine November 2021


Trip down memory lane —

country that had finally become energy independent and naively thought it would stay that way. 12% less gas in the tank compared to 1965 may not seem like a big deal unless you are traveling 30+ miles to work and getting 20 mpg in your used car. It means you take money from other areas of your budget or walk 7.2 miles per day or walk to work 2.4 days a month. Again, no big deal unless you are the one walking or taking money from other much needed areas of your budget. Yep! Who ’ d a Thunk It--gas at $1.47 or even gas at $3.01. Both extremes are shocking. Regretfully, $3.01 may well be the low end of the race to the top of price and to the bottom of supply.

Service station attendants dressed to impress, pumped your gas, checked your oil, added air to your tires, cleaned your windshield — and said thank you and come again.



HVACR NewsMagazine November 2021

A year ago, the vaccine was a promise that many political “ never Trumpers ” were determined never to take. After all, it had his name attached. Doctors, nurses, first responders, fireman, policeman, nursing home care givers — all were hailed as heroes. They served for endless hours in an environment of sickness and death. They watched the elderly die without a loved one by their side. They held a hand and offered comfort in the last moments of life into the first moments of death. They performed life-saving care in the middle of PPP shortages. Having worked doubles and sometimes triples, I recall pictures of them looking as though they couldn ’ t go on. They quarantined themselves from their family while their children cried for their mommy and daddy. It was a war zone for the country with these heroes being on the front lines. It has been a year and over 192,000,000 people have been fully vaccinated. This article does not intend to say what is right or wrong about the recent rush to mandate vaccinations for these first responders. There is no nationwide data to document the number of first responders that have been vaccinated or the number remaining. The AP states that there are over 19,000 first responders in New York alone that refuse the vaccination even with the threat of unpaid leave and eventual firing.

I don ’ t know why folks refuse the vaccination, especially when the pressure is so great. While some have medical reasons, I most often hear the resistance to the mandate as being a greater reason than health. Many have already had the virus and believe that their natural immunities are stronger than the vaccine and refuse to be dictated to by those that claim science as their guild only to ignore it when it contradicts their ideology. We find ourselves in a quagmire of resistance versus the demands and mandates of many politicians. All this while fire stations are closed and police staffing is at dangerous lows. I do not present myself as an omniscient arbitrator of opinions. That is for folks at a much higher pay and experience grade. I would; however, suggest that those that sacrificed so much in 2020 should be given a little leeway in 2021. Where would we have been without them then and where will we be without them in 2021. Are we not at a point where stubbornness and political power has taken control of our conversation leaving us to debate instead of discuss. Perhaps we do not even debate. Perhaps we are wrestling against ourselves that we might not appear to lose? I want to thank those that gave so much in 2020. I owe you consideration and---enough said, I owe you.

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ADEQ / Energy Office Job Opening

Duties and preferred Qualifications are as follows: Job Duties • Provide oversight for Arkansas Energy Office (AEO) energy codes program and state buildings efficiency program • Effectively communicate with private stakeholders and public administrators to administer AEO’s energy codes program and state buildings efficiency program • Work with AEO’s policy team to direct the office’s programming initiatives and legislative mandates • Assist with long-term strategic and budget planning • Engage with relevant energy efficiency Preferred Qualifications • Post-secondary education or experience in building science, engineering, or advanced energy technologies • Excellent written communication skills • Ability to build consensus between multiple groups of stakeholders, including industry professionals and public officials • Ability to quickly understand and respond to the needs of program partners • Ability to act as subject matter expert and lead manager for agency directives • Familiarity with state energy policy and building efficiency standards and renewable energy dockets at the Arkansas Public Service Commission

The Arkansas Energy Office of ADEQ is looking for a motivated individual to fill a position that facilitates the promulgation of energy codes in Arkansas while also managing state building efficiency standards. The code, as approved by consensus and the Arkansas Legislative Council, will apply to both residential and commercial buildings. Applicants must be excellent communicators, with experience with the International Energy Conservation Code preferred. At present, the 2021 code is under consideration, with final details being negotiated. Facilitating the codes approval process will be a major responsibility of this position. If you have questions, contact Chet Howland Manager of Strategic Energy Initiatives Arkansas Department of Energy & Environment 5301 Northshore Drive North Little Rock, AR 72118 Phone: 501-682-7319 Email:

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Skills Development ’ s legislative directive to perform sector reviews in the colleges. HVACR was one of those reviews. A panel of four industry persons assisted OSD in visiting all 16 of the State ’ s HVACR college programs. In a positive move toward improvement and cooperation, OSD and Energy Efficiency Arkansas funded a two day school with Jim Bergmann teaching digital commissioning and diagnosis with measureQuick. Attending schools received over $3,300 in diagnostic equipment for their programs.

North Ark ’s Jeff Smith To Lead Instructor ’s Council

The Arkansas HVACR Association and 10 Instructors from the 16 HVACR college programs founded the Instructor ’ s Council as an arm of the Association. It ’ s goal is to connect instructors and their programs to each other. While each remains independent, instructors can share information, curriculum, lab exercises, and ideas for recruitment and retention. Historically, programs have operated in their own silos without the benefit of a colleague to connect to. Since the organizational meeting, instructors are already sharing ideas. Jeff Smith of North ARK volunteered to serve as the Council ’ s first Chair and Robert Dixon as Secretary. The others volunteered to help in any necessary capacity. The Council will meet as necessary when the members feel it beneficial. Initially, Zoom and email will serve as the primary points of contact and sharing information. The formation of the Council was an outgrowth of the Arkansas Occupational

Arkansas HVACR Association Instructor ’s Coun cil Founding Members

Ken Beeler, Arkansas Tech, Ozark

Mark Constant, ASU Marked Tree

Brad Cooper, ASU Searcy

Robert Dixon, UA PTC

Danny Gumm, SEARK

Leo Rateliff, UA Hope/Texarkana

Jeremy Shuck, National Park

Jeff Smith, North ARK

Roland Walters, SAU Tech

Kevin Wright, NWACC

Instructor’s Council Arkansas HVACR Association P. O. Box 1296 Little Rock, AR 72203

Mission Statement

The mission of the Instructor’s Council of the Arkansas HVACR Association is

1. To serve Arkansans by providing well trained designers, installers, and technicians to serve the HVACR needs of their homes and business; 2. To provide thorough and well rounded education to Arkansans to assure their success in their chosen career of HVACR;

3. To work with high schools to attract their students into HVACR careers;

4. To provide opportunities and encouragement to Arkansans desiring to change their careers to HVACR; 5. To provide continuing education opportunities to the contractors and industry professionals in the service area; 6. To provide information and educational opportunities to Arkansas consumers wanting to know more about comfort, indoor air quality, and safety issues relative to their HVACR systems; 7. To work cooperatively with other instructors and HVACR programs in the State by sharing experiences and ideas to enhance HVACR programs; 10. To continually improve one’s personal knowledge through personal continuing education 11. To work with manufacturers to acquire equipment to supply the needs of labs; 12. And while understanding that each program is independent, to develop a sense of comradery and professional relationship between all HVACR training programs. 8. To work toward the excellence of program credibility through accreditation; 9. To build programs that are skill based and competency assessed;

Five Reasons Why TRUST Matters When Hiring an HVAC Business

Better Business Briefings

Key Insights When Considering an HVAC Business

100% complaint resolution rate for BBB Accredited HVAC businesses

+11,700 customer inquiries per day

HVAC ranks 2nd highest in the number of BBB Accredited Businesses

+1.7M consumers researched HVAC businesses at in 2020

14% increase in the number of inquiries year-over-year

What Traits Customers Like Most

Customers spend more than $500 on average for each HVAC service

Hiring Checklist Find and research businesses first at Check licensing and obtain several quotes for major projects

Friendliness of employees

Communication with customers Skill and knowledge of the project

Check references and read BBB Customer Reviews

Get everything in writing including brand names and warranties

How quickly the project is completed

"The BBB helps your business stand out. By standing by the BBB standards it shows that you care about your customers." - BBB Accredited HVAC business, CO

Source: IABBB Research, Jan - May 2020

Find Trusted HVAC Businesses at

Specializing in Custom Risk Reduction Programs, Cross Pointe is here to help protect your business, your employees and your family.  Commercial Property & Casualty Insurance  Bonds

 Employee Benefits  Personal Insurance

* Cross Pointe is proud to be an Arkansas HVCAR Association Endorsed Agency.

Since 1889

Cross Pointe is your Arkansas Commercial Insurance Specialists, providing affordable coverage and risk reduction services.

Nick Hall, CIC Sr. Risk Management Advisor (501) 680-1186

Travis Hill Sr. Risk Management Advisor (479) 785-2912

Kyle Schnebelen Sr. Risk Management Advisor (501) 831-5221

Cross Pointe Insurance Advisors  12410 Cantrell Rd., Ste. 200A  Little Rock, AR 72223 Cross Pointe Insurance Advisors  1120 Garrison Ave.  Fort Smith, AR 72901

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Insurance Risk Transfer

Nick Hall Cross Pointe Insurance Advisors In Partnership with Arkansas HVACR Association

One of the most important elements of any business’s Risk Management Program is transferring risk through insurance. By purchasing a Liability or Property Insurance Policy, you are transferring your risk of a claim to the insurance company for a pre- determined amount of money, your premiums. This also typically is the largest cost within an organization’s Risk Management Program. So, this month I wanted to make sure that you all know that you have a great benefit within the Arkansas HVACR Association that could save you money. Did you know Arkansas HVACR Association Members get a 10% member discount through EMC? From there they will adjust the rates based off of your claims history and operations, but the starting point on your rates is only 90% of what a non-members would be! If you have not pursued a quote from EMC, there is no better time than now, and getting a quote is much easier than you may think. I put together the included forms that will allow us to get pricing for you from EMC.

With the information in this form, we are able to get you a good premium indication, and would only need a couple more specific things from you in order to turn that premium indication into an issuable quote. If you are unsure of any of these answers, your best guess will be enough for us to get you an indication. I hope that some of you take this opportunity to get a quote from EMC and see if you could be saving on your insurance premiums! As always, please let us know if you have any questions!

It takes 970 Btu per pound of water to go from 211° to 212° and change the state from liquid to vapor. Every degree prior to that above freezing only took 1 Btu. It is always hardest just prior to changing your state in life.


General Information

Company Name (& DBA):



Contact Name:

Years in Business:

Contact Number:

Website Address:

Contact E-Mail:

General Liability

Total Annual Revenue:

New Installation



Revenue %:




Workers Compensation

Estimated Annual Payroll:

Employee Count:


Technician :


Vehicles (# of Each):


Box Trucks:

SUV/Pickup Trucks:



Will Need VINs and Driver Information (Name, DOB, DL #) For Most Accurate Pricing

Current/Prior Coverage

Do You Currently Have Insurance Coverage? Y / N

Have You Had Any Prior Insurance Claims? Y / N


General Information

Company Name (& DBA):

Mailing Address:


Contact Name:

Years in Business:

Contact Number:

Website Address:

Contact E-Mail:


Physical Address:

Do You Own or Lease Your Building? Own / Lease

Do You Need Coverage On Your Building? Y / N

Contents Coverage Needed:

$10K $25K $50K $100K $150K $200K Other:

Contractors Equipment

Total Value of Tools Under $1,000 Each:

List Any Tools/Equipment Over $1,000 You Want Coverage On:



Serial #


Current/Prior Coverage

Do You Currently Have Insurance Coverage? Y / N

Have You Had Any Prior Insurance Claims? Y / N

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What if they come in higher and you are already satisfied with your present company? Don’t change. The Association would never ask you to do anything that is against your best interest; however, if their quote is less and you get a 10% discount, “ WHY WOULD YOU NOT CHANGE ?” Your changing to EMC helps the entire industry because of the financial help EMC gives the Association. How is that true? Let me be very presumptuous and say that the Arkansas HVACR Association offers benefits to its members that are unavailable elsewhere at an affordable price. 1. The Association works tirelessly on legislative and regulation issues. 2. The Association has saved the industry thousands of dollars that most will never know about. It is usually behind the scenes. Just one example. Those that attended the Manual J classes this fall were part of a $22,250 cumulative savings. 3. The Association offers training and informative sessions in each of the eight chapters during their five meetings. Three especially important examples are a. “So Called” Drop In Refrigerants b. Mechanical Ventilation c. DOT licensing surprise requirements Again, these were made possible in part by EMC Insurance. So, I am not embarrassed to ask you to give EMC a shot at your business. What have you got to lose? (479) 424-4918 or (501) 581-1176

Why you owe it to yourself and the industry

OK! It is obvious that the Arkansas HVACR Association promotes EMC insurance. Truth is, there is something in it for us. EMC pays the Association an advertising/marketing fee that is important to the finances of the Association. BUT THAT ISN’T THE ONLY REASON! First, EMC came recommended by several HVACR companies in the Ft. Smith chapter. Why? Here are three reasons: 1. EMC is very competitive 2. EMC offers Association members a 10% discount in addition to their competitive rates 3. EMC has a record of quick and fair claims service. Second, the fee paid by EMC to the Association allows us to keep our membership dues low, only $200 per year. Most other Associations begin at $400 and go to over a thousand. Third, we sincerely believe that every HVACR contractor in Arkansas owes it to themselves to get a quote prior to their next renewal. Notice, I did not say buy from EMC. They still have to compete for your business with pricing and service. It costs noting to get a quote and the benefits can be substantial.

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Kirk’s Corner

Preparing for end-of-year rebates

As the year ends, we want to remind you to submit your rebates online early. Before you submit your online application, we will need the following information from your invoice:

- Customer name - Installation address - Equipment brand

- Model number - Serial number or visit For more information about natural gas, visit

Bonus tip

To make the process run smoothly, make sure to include your company’s name and Dealer ID. “We at CenterPoint Energy continue to process rebate and are working hard to get your customers their rebates as quickly as possible,” said Kirk Pierce, Energy Efficiency Consultant. To save time and get your rebates more quickly, we recommend submitting your rebates online using our easy-to-use application at

Winter & Summer Pinnacle Mountain State Park is an Arkansas treasure.

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NWTI Business & Industry 709 Old Missouri Rd., Springdale, Arkansas 72764 Michael Dewberry: 479-751-8824 SAU Tech 6415 Spellman Rd, East Camden, AR 71701 Eddie Horton : 870-574-4500 Southeast Arkansas College 1900 Hazel Street, Pine Bluff, AR 71603 John Pyland : 870-543-5900 UACC Hope / Texarkana 2500 South Main, Hope 71802 Leo Rateliff : 870-722-8507 UACC Morrilton 1537 University Blvd., Morrilton, AR 72110 Carroll Chism: 3000 West Scenic Drive, NLR 72206 Robert Dixon : 501-812-2200 UA Monticello / Crossett 1326 Hwy 52W, Crossett, AR 71635 William Campbell : 870-460-2010 (501) 977-2053 UA Pulaski Tech If you are a college or technical institute and want to be included in the list of HVACR education providers, contact the NewsMagazine 501-487-8655 We’ll make sure you are in the next issue. Also, if we need to correct your information, please let us know. Add Your Name

Training Programs

Arkansas North Eastern College 4213 Main Street, Blytheville 72315 Rick Sones : 870-763-6222 Arkansas Tech University, Ozark 1700 Helberg Lane, Ozark, AR 72949 Kenneth Beeler : 479-508-3333 ASU Mountain Home 4034 Hwy 63 W, Mountain Home 72653 Eric Smith : 870-508-6221 ASU Newport 33500 US 63, Marked Tree 72365 Mark Constant : 870-358-8627 ASU Searcy 1800 East Moore Avenue, Searcy Brad Cooper: 501-207-6221 East Arkansas Community College Newcastle Road, Forrest City, AR 72335 Robert Jackson : 870-633-5411 National Park College 101 College Drive, Hot Springs, 71913 Kelli Albrecht : 501-760-4349 501-760-4222 North Arkansas Community College 1515 Pioneer Drive, Harrison, AR 72601 Jeff Smith : 870-391-3382 Northwest Arkansas Community College One College Drive, Bentonville, AR 71712 Michael Dewberry : 870-391-3382

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• Want to start an in-house training program for your techs? • Want to add substance and training material that your techs can use anytime? • Want training that is affordable? • Want training that is easily accessible? The ESCO Group rolled out the newest addition to their training material intended for schools, companies, and techs that want to improve their knowledge and move up in their career. You may know ESCO as the premier provider of EPA 608 training but they have come a long way and their work in education is now unsurpassed for individual or organized--classroom education. Many college programs have adopted their accreditation program but ESCO also makes a plethora of educational materials available for everyone — at affordable pricing. So what is available? Recorded Webinars — Free Danfoss:  Expansion Device Characteristics, Part 1 & 2  Preparing Tomorrow’ W orkforce for Flammable Refrigerants Honeywell:  Fundamentals of Refrigeraton

Welcome to the ESCO Institute elearning center, the ESCO Learning Network (ELN). Here you can access

digital curriculum, immersive learning, streaming videos,

 Environmental Regulations  Choosing a Refrigerant  Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle  Thermodynamic Properties  Refrigerant Resources  Retrofitting HCFCs and HFCs  Environmental Systems Solutions  Mechanical Codes  Compressor Capacity  Refrigeration Design Fundamentals ESCO Courses — Affordable Fee  Brazing and Soldering 38 Lessons, $32.95  Refrigeration Cycle, Refrigerants, and Components Training 136 Lessons, $19.95  Basic Refrigeraton and Charging Procedures 59 Lessons, $29.95 specific aspect of what the average HVACR service technician is likely to encounter in the field. ELN webinars, industry news and the work bench series, a compilation of short, concise videos targeting

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 R-410 Safety Training 39 Lessons, $24.95  Gas Heating: Furnaces, Boilers, Components, and Controls 11 courses, $59.95  EPA 608 Preparatory Course Bundle $28.95  Workbench Training Series 7 courses, $2.95 monthly Technical Training Associates: Jim Johnson — Affordable Fee  Technical Training Asssociates Subscription 32 Courses $29.95 monthly  HVACR Troubleshooting Series: A Heat Pump That Won’t Cool 4 Lessons $16.95  HVACR Electrical Troubleshooting Component Testing Video 4 Lessons $20.95 Technical Training Associates: Jim Johnson Articles — Free  Heat Pump Wiring Diagrams  Air Flow Performance and How it Affects RefrigerationSystem Pressure  EEV Fundamentals If you want to know more about ESCO, click on the following box . You’ll be impressed with their offerings.

The HVACR Association opens your mind to success

More Included

More To Come

Rebate Programs & Incentives

2021 Energy Efficiency REBATES

Rebate Programs & Incentives

HVACR NewsMagazine November 2021

Tech News

Commissioning a Residential Split Heat Pump

We’ve talked about commissioning basic refrigeration equipment before , but commissioning looks a lot different for a heat pump. Before we go any further, to summarize, commissioning

a system means we are doing whatever is necessary to get the equipment in the best possible operating condition. Commissioning systems tend to appear cost-prohibitive because there are sometimes long lists of things that must be done to really get a system to optimum performance. But with the introduction of measureQuick as a tool for technicians, commissioning systems is getting faster and more thorough at the same time! a commissioning, the first thing to think about is which part of the system you will be interacting with. There’s the air side, the Basic Commissioning Order Before beginning

Commissioning a system is critical anytime a technician makes any type of repair or alteration to an existing system. It’s also important if you’re working on a system you’ve never worked on before, and it’s a vital part of a new install start - up. Basically, commissioning systems is an everyday responsibility for technicians, which means everyone should be familiar with them. But that also means there are tons of things to miss if we don’t do them carefully.

condensate side, the refrigerant side, and the electrical side. You’ll interact with all of these system components, but there is a combination of these parts that make up the best possible sequence to be commissioned:




• Condensate Why this specific order? Well, if there is anything wrong with the electrical side, it

HVACR NewsMagazine November 2021

Tech News

Commissioning a Residential Split Heat Pump

We’ve talked about commissioning basic refrigeration equipment before , but commissioning looks a lot different for a heat pump. Before we go any further, to summarize, commissioning

a system means we are doing whatever is necessary to get the equipment in the best possible operating condition. Commissioning systems tend to appear cost-prohibitive because there are sometimes long lists of things that must be done to really get a system to optimum performance. But with the introduction of measureQuick as a tool for technicians, commissioning systems is getting faster and more thorough at the same time! a commissioning, the first thing to think about is which part of the system you will be interacting with. There’s the air side, the Basic Commissioning Order Before beginning

Commissioning a system is critical anytime a technician makes any type of repair or alteration to an existing system. It’s also important if you’re working on a system you’ve never worked on before, and it’s a vital part of a new install start - up. Basically, commissioning systems is an everyday responsibility for technicians, which means everyone should be familiar with them. But that also means there are tons of things to miss if we don’t do them carefully.

condensate side, the refrigerant side, and the electrical side. You’ll interact with all of these system components, but there is a combination of these parts that make up the best possible sequence to be commissioned:




• Condensate Why this specific order? Well, if there is anything wrong with the electrical side, it

HVACR NewsMagazine November 2021

Tech News

can prohibit optimum operation for the air side and refrigerant side. If there’s anything wrong with the airflow/ductwork, it can prohibit proper operation for the refrigerant side, and so on. Checking each area of the system in this order ensures that nothing gets missed during the commissioning process. It also keeps a technician from having to recheck the charge that is no longer the same because the airflow wasn’t set properly. In truth, most of these areas of the system will be checked simultaneously, especially if you are using measureQuick. But if there were a best- practice sequence of commissioning, this would be it. The electrical side of a system is one of the easiest to check, and it’s also one of the easiest to overlook. Use your eyes first! Visually inspect everything. With the power off to the appliance, give a good tug on all the electrical connections, including contactors, relays, wire nuts, etc., to ensure that the connections are solid and nothing is loose. Use your ears to listen for any abnormal buzzing/humming from transformers, relays, and other components. Confirm that the wire size is appropriate for the application based on the equipment ratings, including any heater kits installed. Make sure the applied voltage matches the way the motors and transformers are wired up. Keep a lookout for any discoloration or char marks on the wires, and pay very close attention to any splices in the thermostat wire. Electrical

manuals (RTFM!) to make sure the wiring is correct and that any field-applied settings are made correctly. You’ll want to check the defrost board wiring and even capacitor wiring. Many technicians keep multi-speed blower motors set to the factory setting, but that may need to be changed, depending on your market and the specific application of the system. Amperage from the compressor and fan motors can also tell you something about how the system is operating. The current draw will change by the load, but it’s not hard to tell when a compressor is over or under-amping under the given conditions. If you are using

measureQuick, you will even be able to check power factors and calculate EER and estimated SEER from your electrical readings

The next step would be to study the wiring diagrams and the installation

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your hand across the top of the outdoor unit is very helpful; in the cooling season, the air from the top of the unit should be hot, and it should be cold in the heating season. If you run your hand across the top of the outdoor unit and the fan is running but don’t feel any air, the motor may be running backward due to an electrical issue. At this point, one thing should be clear: a good technician will use their senses before making any measurements . Measurements are key, but if a technician can’t use their senses first, it’s likely that the measurements will only confuse them. Be observant and aware of how the system is operating by your senses before you begin measuring anything. Once everything is confirmed to be clean and set up properly, it’s time to let the unit run. Letting the system run 15- 20 minutes uninterrupted is standard. During this time, you will need to make sure the load on the space (either heating or cooling) is enough for your testing. If you start to notice a space dropping 5 degrees in 20 minutes, then you have a totally different sizing problem. But we'll save that for another article!

Airflow and ductwork are next on the list, and they’re probably the most important areas of the system to commission. Commissioning the air side of any system includes making sure the settings for the indoor unit are set up correctly and that the air delivery system (the blower wheel, condenser fan, the indoor and outdoor coils, the filter, the ductwork) is clean and not restricted. Again, it’s critical to use y our eyes to confirm that the motors are running and your ears to listen out for any abnormal sounds. Also, pay attention to any air leaks in the cabinet of the indoor unit on either the supply or return side. Observing the ductwork for kinks in flex and crushed metal pipe or looking for air leakage can help answer a lot of questions during the commissioning process. Your ears can help with this, too, because there may be an audible whistling sound from the cabinet of the indoor unit when air leakage is present. Use your hand to feel whether or not air is actually coming out of the supply registers and whether or not it is hot or cold (depending on the season). Running

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Now it’s time to test/measure. Most technicians are going to test airflow by using static pressure and a fan table. This method is perfectly fine so long as the technician understands that a static pressure reading and fan table will give only an approximation for airflow in a system. Static pressure is valuable because we can determine whether or not the total system static pressure is within

range for the system’s design. We can also see whether there might be an issue on either the return or supply side of the ductwork. In relation to the condensate side of the system, a return static pressure 0.4” w.c. and above can cause condensate to be picked up by the blower and slung around the cabinet.

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After the airflow and ductwork have been tested, it’s possible that balancing may need to be done. You can balance a system by carefully and incrementally dampening up or down a duct in order to increase or decrease the amount of air supplied to a zone. We won’t get too technical with the information involved with air balancing a space here, but it’s important to realize that there are simple balancing practices that can and should be done when commissioning a system.

temperature probes to the system and let it run for at least 15-20 minutes. For R410a systems especially, it’s important to allow time for the refrigerant to stabilize before attempting to make any kind of assessment. Once the system has stabilized, the readings to be taken are superheat, subcooling, line temps, saturation temps, pressures, and air temperature split (Delta T = Return Temp – Supply Temp). Remember, there are ways to determine what these readings should be. To revisit this, here is the LINK.


The refrigerant charge is the next area of the system to check during commissioning. The first thing to do on a startup is to weigh in the charge. Take the length of the line set and calculate how much more refrigerant should be added to the charge of the system (for most residential split heat pumps, the standard calculation for weighing in the correct charge is as follows: 0.6 oz/ft of line set after 15ft. Refrigerant Charge Calculators can help in other applications.) If you’re not on a startup, then all yo u’ve got to do is hook up your refrigerant gauges/probes and

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heating season, sending the outdoor unit into a forced defrost is an important step. Ensuring that the defrost sensors are properly operating can prevent a future service call. During runtimes in cold weather, you may be able to observe the freeze patterns on the outdoor coil. Freeze patterns on an outdoor coil in heat mode should be uniform across the entire coil. Confirming the reversing valve operation is critical during the heating season. When the system is in defrost, make sure to confirm that the heat strips inside are actually operating. you’ve finished balancing and checking the charge, always double-check the Schrader cores in the service ports for leaks. I always When

apply a small amount of Nylog Blue to the caps to help prevent leaks and keep the caps from getting stuck the next time a technician goes to remove them.

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Finally, we reach the infamous condensate area of the system. Failing to check the condensate drain is the #1 reason for callbacks in hot and humid climate areas. If the drain is not set up properly, it can cause the system to shut down due to a tripped float switch. Or worse, it can cause expensive water damage. To really commission the condensate side of a system, there are two main points to consider:

Is the unit draining?

Is the float switch working?

To make sure the unit is draining properly, the cabinet itself must be level. On very rare

Another important detail is to make sure the drain line, including the trap and at least 5ft of a horizontal run, is insulated. Many times, the drain line is located in unconditioned spaces and will begin to sweat and drip once cool condensate begins to run through it. To prevent potential water damage, insulate the drain line. If there is a condensate pump installed, take care to ensure the vinyl tubing of the pump won't kink over time. Make sure the pump reservoir is clean and actually operating properly.

occasions, the cabinet may need a slight tilt towards the primary drain port. However, in typical applications, the appliance should be perfectly level. The drain should always be trapped. It doesn’t matter if the cabinet is positive or negative pressure. Even positive-pressure cabinets can benefit from a condensate trap because it will prevent air loss. If the drain is gravity-fed, the pitch of the horizontal section of the drain line should be about ¼” every 1 foot, and there should be a clean-out tee and vent installed for easy maintenance. A clean-out tee that is installed before the trap should be capped off.

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be done simultaneously. Not only does that allow experienced technicians to cover more ground more thoroughly, but it also ensures that newer technicians don’t miss anything. For more information on commissioning, and for an extensive soup-to-nuts look at how you can use measureQuick for commissioning, here are some more resources: system-commissioning-kalos-meeting/

Insulate the trap and at least 5 feet of condensate commissioning-measurements-walk-through- w-measurequick/

If the reservoir is mounted, make sure it’s securely fastened and doesn’t sag when water fills up. Secondary drain pans are important to check as well. If the drain pan is hung beneath a horizontally installed indoor unit, it can be beneficial to slightly tilt the pan to one corner (the corner where the pan switch is located). This tilt will trip the switch sooner and will keep the entire pan from filling up. To test the switches, lift the floats and observe whether or not the electrical path is broken. You can do this with the system running or by using a voltage or ohmmeter. mindset-ducts-venting-commissioning/

This overview is pretty specific to residential split system heat pumps. Much of the information in this article can also be applied to rooftop units and package units, but the main thing to remember is that no one application is ever quite the same as another. Every application you work on will have its quirks, and the best advice to follow no matter what you do is the Read The Fantastic Manual!

—Kaleb Saleeby

Bryan Orr, HVAC School ( Founder / Podcaster / Dad of 10 ) Bryan Orr is a lifelong learner, proud technician and advocate for the HVAC/R Trade

The NewsMagazine is grateful for them generously sharing the information with you and encourages you to subscribe to Brian’s web page. Click on the following picture to link to the site.

Whew! That’s a lot, isn’t it? The good news is that if you’re reading this article, you should already be familiar with measureQuick. And if you are already using measureQuick during service calls and commissioning, you know that a lot of the things covered in this overview can

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Tech Tips – HVAC School Bryan Orr

Here is one of them:

W1, W2, & E

I got this question via email (edited slightly for length): Some things I've done because I've been taught to do them yet I don't know why I do them. One of those things is putting a jumper between w1/e and w2. Sometimes, in the case of a Goodman for example, I've been taught to combine the brown wire along all the whites at the air handler. Do you mind just clarifying the whole situation with w1/e jumped to w2? And also maybe x2 on some stats? Thanks for your help. — J Back in the early 2000s, when I was the lead trainer for another company, some of the most common miswiring issues had to do with electric heat. So much so that I created a bunch of different wiring diagrams with a fancy program called “Microsoft Paint” to illustrate how to wire different combinations of equipment.

In older thermostats (older than the diagram shown here), there were no installer setup programs where you could designate the type of system the thermostat was connected to. Each terminal performed a particular universal function, and you would configure the operation based on how you wired it up. Which terminals you connected and where, which ones you left open, and sometimes, which ones you jumpered out. So, first, let's give a quick look at the meaning of each terminal: W – When you see a W terminal, it just means heat. Usually, you will only see W when the control only has one stage of heat. W1 – Means first-stage heat. In a heat pump, first-stage heat is the same as the first-stage cool. It just means the contactor/compressor is

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turning on. Whether that is heat or cool is actually dictated by whether or not the O/B terminal is energized. That is why, on many old thermostats, you would jumper Y1 and W1 in a heat pump application. W2 – Means second-stage heat. It could be the first stage of heat strips in a common southern heat pump, the gas furnace backing up the heat pump in a modern “hybrid heat” application, or just a second heat strip bank in the case of a straight electric system. W2 is generally called on based on a temperature differential between setpoint and space, outdoor temperature, or run time. W3 – This is just the next stage of heat after W2. E – Is emergency heat, usually just a way to manually drive on what would normally be the secondary form of heat without stage 1 heating. Emergency heat only makes sense when there is some sort of secondary heat source. Even then, it only helps if the secondary heat source is sufficient to heat the space, as in the case when the secondary is a furnace, Hydronics, or a large heat kit. In Florida, most of our units have 5KW auxiliary heat, which will never

be sufficient to heat a home in an “emergency.” Many of these other terminal designations are a holdover from a time when all the controls in the thermostat and defrost board were electromechanical. Much of it was for indication/trouble lights, and some of it was for the thermostat to perform staging based on outdoor temperature because run-time logic was not available. So, for your X2 question, have a look at the thermostat and diagram below.

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